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Tlhokahalo ea lefats'e ea paraquat e ka eketseha

Ha ICI e ne e qala paraquat 'marakeng ka 1962, motho o ne a ke ke a nahana hore paraquat e tla ba le koluoa ​​​​e mpe joalo nakong e tlang. Sebolayalehola sena se kgabane se sa kgetheng se pharalletseng se ne se thathamisitswe lenaneng la bobedi le leholo lefatsheng la dibolayalehola. Ho theoha ho kile ha hlajoa ke lihlong, empa ka theko e phahameng e tsoelang pele ea Shuangcao selemong sena 'me e ka' na ea tsoela pele ho phahama, e ntse e sokola 'marakeng oa lefatše lohle, empa paraquat e theko e tlaase e tlisa mesong ea tšepo.

Sebolayalehola se kgabane se sa kgetheng

Paraquat ke sebolayalehola sa bipyridine. Sebolayalehola ke sebolayalehola se sa kgetheng se hlahisitsweng ke ICI ka bo-1950. E na le mefuta e mengata ea li-herbicide, ketso e potlakileng ea ho kopana, ho hanyetsa khoholeho ea pula, le ho se khetholle. Le litšobotsi tse ling tse babatsehang.

Paraquat e ka sebelisoa ho laola pele ho lema kapa lehola ka mor'a ho mela masimong a lifate tsa litholoana, poone, 'moba, linaoa tsa soya le lijalo tse ling. E ka sebelisoa e le desiccant nakong ea kotulo hape e le defoliant.

Paraquat e bolaea lera la chloroplast ea mofoka haholo-holo ka ho ikopanya le likarolo tse tala tsa mofoka, e ama sebopeho sa chlorophyll ka mofoka, ka tsela eo e ama photosynthesis ea mofoka, 'me qetellong e emisa ka potlako ho hōla ha mofoka. Paraquat e na le phello e matla e senyang lithane tse tala tsa limela tsa monocot le dicot. Ka kakaretso, lehola le ka ntšoa mmala nakong ea lihora tse 2 ho isa ho tse 3 ka mor'a ho sebelisoa.

Boemo le boemo ba kantle ho naha ea paraquat

Ka lebaka la chefo ea paraquat 'meleng oa motho le kotsi e ka bang teng bophelong ba batho nakong ea ts'ebeliso e sa tloaelehang, paraquat e thibetsoe ke linaha tse fetang 30 ho kenyeletsa European Union, China, Thailand, Switzerland le Brazil.
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Ho latela lintlha tse fanoeng ke 360 ​​Research Reports, thekiso ea lefats'e ea paraquat ka 2020 e theohile ho lidolara tse limilione tse 100 tsa Amerika. Ho latela tlaleho ea Syngenta mabapi le paraquat e lokollotsoeng ka 2021, Syngenta hajoale e rekisa paraquat linaheng tse 28. Ho na le lik'hamphani tse 377 lefatšeng ka bophara tse ngolisitseng li-paraquat formulations tse sebetsang hantle. Syngenta e ikarabella hoo e ka bang e 'ngoe ea thekiso ea lefatše ka bophara ea paraquat. Kotara.

Ka 2018, China e rometse lithane tse 64,000 tsa paraquat le lithane tse 56,000 ka 2019. Libaka tse ka sehloohong tsa ho romela thepa ea paraquat ea China ka 2019 ke Brazil, Indonesia, Nigeria, United States, Mexico, Thailand, Australia, joalo-joalo.

Le hoja paraquat e thibetsoe linaheng tsa bohlokoa tse hlahisang temo tse kang European Union, Brazil le China, 'me palo ea thepa e tsoang linaheng tse ling e fokotsehile lilemong tse' maloa tse fetileng, tlas'a maemo a khethehileng ao litheko tsa glyphosate le glufosinate-ammonium li ntseng li tsoela pele. e be holimo selemong sena 'me ho ka etsahala hore e tsoele pele ho phahama , Paraquat, mofuta o batlang o tsielehile, o tla tlisa matla a macha.

Litheko tse phahameng tsa Shuangcao li khothalletsa tlhokahalo ea lefats'e ea paraquat

Nakong e fetileng, ha theko ea glyphosate e ne e le 26,000 yuan / ton, paraquat e ne e le 13,000 yuan / ton. Theko ea hona joale ea glyphosate e ntse e le 80,000 yuan / ton, 'me theko ea glufosinate e ka holimo ho 350,000 yuan. Nakong e fetileng, tlhokeho e phahameng ea lefats'e ea paraquat e ne e le lithane tse ka bang 260,000 (tse thehiloeng ho 42% ea sehlahisoa sa sebele), e leng lithane tse ka bang 80,000. Mmaraka oa Chaena o ka ba lithane tse 15 000, Brazil lithane tse 10 000, Thailand lithane tse 10 000, le Indonesia, United States le Thailand. Nigeria, India le linaha tse ling.图虫创意-样图-924679718413139989

Ka thibelo ea meriana ea setso e kang China, Brazil, le Thailand, ho ea ka khopolo, ho lokolotsoe lithane tse fetang 30,000 tsa sebaka sa mmaraka. Leha ho le joalo, selemong sena, ka keketseho e potlakileng ea litheko tsa "Shuangcao" le Diquat, le 'maraka o sa sebetseng United States Ka bolokolohi ba kopo ea mochine, tlhokahalo ea' marakeng oa US kapa Amerika Leboea e eketsehile ka hoo e ka bang 20%, e hlohleditseng tlhokeho ya paraquat le ho tshehetsa theko ya yona ho isa boholeng bo itseng. Hona joale, karo-karolelano ea theko / ts'ebetso ea paraquat e na le tlhōlisano haeba e ka tlase ho 40,000. matla.

Ho phaella moo, ka kakaretso babali ba Asia Boroa-bochabela ba tlaleha hore libakeng tse kang Vietnam, Malaysia le Brazil, lehola le hōla ka potlako nakong ea lipula, ’me paraquat e khona ho mamella khoholeho ea pula hantle. Litheko tsa litlama tse ling tse bolaeang likokoana-hloko li nyolohetse holimo haholo. Lihoai libakeng tsena li ntse li na le tlhokahalo e thata. Bareki ba lehae ba boletse hore monyetla oa ho fumana paraquat ho tsoa liteisheneng tse bohlooho joalo ka khoebo ea moeli o ntse o eketseha.

Ho phaella moo, thepa e tala ea paraquat, pyridine, ke ea indasteri ea lik'hemik'hale tsa mashala a tlaase. Theko ea hona joale e batla e tsitsitse ho 28,000 yuan/ton, eo ka sebele e leng keketseho e kholo ho tloha ho ea pele e tlaase ea 21,000 yuan/ton, empa ka nako eo 21,000 yuan/ton e ne e se e ntse e le tlaase ho feta theko ea 2.4 Li-yuan tse likete tse leshome / tone. . Ka hona, le hoja theko ea pyridine e phahame, e ntse e le ka theko e lekaneng, e tla tsoela pele molemo ho eketseha ha tlhokahalo ea lefats'e ea paraquat. Baetsi ba bangata ba paraquat ba malapeng le bona ba lebelletsoe ho rua molemo ho eona.
Bokhoni ba likhoebo tse kholo tsa tlhahiso ea paraquat

Selemong sena, ho lokolloa ha matla a tlhahiso ea paraquat (ka 100%) ho lekanyelitsoe, 'me Chaena ke mohlahisi ea ka sehloohong oa paraquat. Ho utloisisoa hore lik'hamphani tsa malapeng tse kang Red Sun, Jiangsu Nuoen, Shandong Luba, Hebei Baofeng, Hebei Lingang, le Syngenta Nantong li hlahisa paraquat. Nakong e fetileng, ha paraquat e ne e le boemong bo botle, Shandong Dacheng, Sanonda, Lvfeng, Yongnong, Qiaochang, le Xianlong e ne e le ba bang ba baetsi ba paraquat. Hoa utloahala hore lik'hamphani tsena ha li sa hlahisa paraquat.

Red Sun e na le limela tse tharo tse hlahisang paraquat. Har'a bona, Nanjing Red Sun Biochemical Co., Ltd. e na le matla a tlhahiso ea lithane tse 8,000-10,000. E fumaneha Nanjing Chemical Industrial Park. Selemong se fetileng, 42% ea lihlahisoa tsa 'mele e ne e e-na le tlhahiso ea khoeli le khoeli ea lithane tse 2,500-3,000. Selemong sena, e ile ea emisa ka ho feletseng tlhahiso. . Semela sa Anhui Guoxing se na le matla a tlhahiso ea lithane tse 20,000. Semela sa Shandong Kexin se na le tlhahiso ea lithane tse 2,000. Bokhoni ba tlhahiso ea Red Sun bo lokolloa ho 70%.

Jiangsu Nuoen e na le matla a tlhahiso ea lithane tse 12 000 tsa paraquat, 'me tlhahiso ea sebele ke lithane tse ka bang 10,000, tse lokollang hoo e ka bang 80% ea matla a eona; Shandong Luba e na le matla a tlhahiso ea lithane tse 10 000 tsa paraquat, 'me tlhahiso ea eona ea sebele ke lithane tse ka bang 7 000, tse lokollang hoo e ka bang 70% ea matla a eona a tlhahiso; Tlhahiso ea Hebei Baofeng ea paraquat ke lithane tse 5,000; Hebei Lingang e na le matla a tlhahiso ea lithane tse 5 000 tsa paraquat, 'me tlhahiso ea sebele ke lithane tse ka bang 3,500; Syngenta Nantong e na le matla a tlhahiso ea lithane tse 10,000 tsa paraquat, 'me tlhahiso ea sebele e ka ba lithane tse 5,000.

Ho phaella moo, Syngenta e na le sebaka sa tlhahiso ea lithane tse 9,000 semeleng sa Huddersfield United Kingdom le setsi sa lithane tse 1,000 Brazil. Hoa utloisisoa hore selemo sena se ile sa boela sa angoa ke seoa sena boemong ba ho fokotseha ho hoholo ha tlhahiso, ho fokotsa tlhahiso ka 50% ka nako e le 'ngoe.
kakaretso
Paraquat e ntse e na le melemo e ke keng ea nkeloa sebaka linaheng tse ngata ho pota lefatše. Ho phaella moo, theko ea hona joale ea glyphosate le glufosinate e le bahlolisani ba boemong bo phahameng 'me phepelo e thata, e fanang ka maikutlo a mangata bakeng sa keketseho ea tlhokahalo ea paraquat.

Liolimpiki tsa Mariha tsa Beijing li tla tšoaroa ka Hlakola selemong se tlang. Ho tloha ka Pherekhong 2022, lifeme tse ngata tse kholo ka leboea ho China li tobane le kotsi ea ho emisa tlhahiso ka matsatsi a 45. Hona joale, ho ka etsahala haholo, empa ho ntse ho e-na le tekanyo e itseng ea ho hloka botsitso. Ho emisoa ha tlhahiso ho tla mpefatsa tsitsipano lipakeng tsa phepelo le tlhoko ea glyphosate le lihlahisoa tse ling. Ho lebeletsoe hore tlhahiso le thekiso ea Paraquat e nke monyetla ona ho fumana matla.

 


Nako ea poso: Nov-24-2021